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Perception is a Wisdom Skill.
The higher your Wisdom Score, the more likely you will succeed on Perception Checks.
Passive Perception is a special form of Perception that allows a creature to passively detect things in its line of sight without rolling a Skill Check.
Passive Perception is most commonly applied against Stealth checks: when a hidden creature enters another creature's line of sight, the hidden creature rolls a Stealth check against a Difficulty Class (DC) equal to the opposing creature's Passive Perception.
A creature's Passive Perception value is determined by this formula:
Passive Perception = 10 + Wisdom Modifier + Proficiency Bonus (if Proficient in Perception)